The Alphabet of Arabic, the Arabic script or the Arabic abjad, is the script we use to write the Arabic language. It consists of 28 letters, all of which are consonants. To write the Arabic alphabet, you need to write it from right to left, and includes a variety of diacritical marks to indicate vowel sounds.

The Arabic alphabet has its roots in the Nabataean alphabet, which they used to write the Nabataean dialect of Aramaic. Over time, the Nabataean script evolved and the Arab people adopted it to write the Arabic language.

The Arabic alphabet plays a significant role in the Arabic language and culture. It is also used in calligraphy, which is an art form in the Arab world. Also, people use the Arabic script to write a number of other languages (Persian, Urdu, and Pashto). In addition, people used it in the writing of religious texts, including the Quran.

In addition to its practical uses, the Arabic alphabet also holds deep cultural and historical significance for the Arab people. It symbolizes their identity and heritage and is often used in Arabic art and architecture.

The Arabic Alphabet 

The Arabic alphabet and the English alphabet are not the same in terms of writing and order. It consists of 28 letters, which have a specific pattern. The letters are grouped into three categories:

  • The sun letters. Which are taa’ ت, tha’ ث, dal د , zain ز, seen س, sheen ش, saad ص, dhad ض, taa ط, dhaa’ ظ, lam ل, noon ن. 

  • The moon letters.  Which are alif أ, baa’ ب, jeem ج, haa’ ح, Khaa’ خ, ain ع, ghain غ, faa’ ف, khaf ق, kaf ك, meem م, waow و, yaa’ ي, haa’ ه. 

In short, the Sun and Moon letters in Arabic refer to certain letters. When the letters are paired with the definite article (ال), either make the preceding ل sound silent (Sun letters) or do not affect it (Moon letters). These concepts are crucial to understand and use when learning to speak and read Modern Standard Arabic. Mispronouncing the Sun letters is a common error among beginners. The impact of the Sun letters is purely phonetic and not morphological. In other words, it affects pronunciation and vocalization but not spelling. To use the Sun and Moon letters rule, add the definite article (ال) to an indefinite word, and if the next letter is a Sun letter, the ل sound in the definite article will be silent.

The Arabic Alphabet Order

there are two ways to arrange the Arabic alphabet, one being hijaiyah arrangement, which is based on similarities and analogs of the letters and their meanings. The linguist Nasr bin Assem Al-Laithi Al-Kinani developed this method and Al-Hajjaj Bin Yusuf Al-Thaqafi commissioned it. It is also referred to as "apathetic arrangement" to distinguish it from the standard alphabetical order. The second is the abjadiyah, which is the earliest method to establish for organizing letters. There is a belief that the first people to use this method were the descendants of Adnan ibn Adad, or that the Phoenicians first used it.

  • Hijaiyah letters: أ ب ت ث ج ح خ د ذ ر ز س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ك ل م ن هـ و ي

  • Abjadiyah letters: أ ب ج د هـ وز ح ط ي ك ل م ن س ع ف ص ق ر ش ت ث خ ذ ض غ ط